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Immunohistochemistry
Immunohistochemistry

Immunohistochemistry

Immunohistochemistry - Immunohistochemistry (IHC) refers to the process of detecting antigens (e.g., proteins) in cells of a tissue section by using the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in the tissue. IHC takes its name from the roots "immuno," in reference to antibodies used in the procedure and "histo," meaning tissue. Immunohistochemical staining is widely used in the diagnosis of abnormal cells such as those found in cancerous tumors. Specific molecular markers are characteristic of particular cellular events such as proliferation or cell death (apoptosis). IHC is also widely used in basic research to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue. Visualizing an antibody-antigen interaction can be accomplished in a number of ways. In the most common instance, an antibody is conjugated to an enzyme, such as peroxidase, that can catalyze a color-producing reaction.

MHS offers a variety of HIS services:

Diagnostic IHC - For our veterinary diagnostic services, we offer a full complement of IHC markers to phenotype lymphomas and differentiate various soft tissue tumors.

Research IHC - We can work up (optimize) any antibody for you. We have a list of hundreds of antibodies we've already optimized and can suggest to you which antibodies to purchase and which ones to avoid.

New antibody optimization - If we haven't worked up an antibody yet, we will work with you to optimize it specifically for your specimens. We will utilize a variety of pre-treatments (heat, enzyme digestion, etc.), try different titrations of the primary antibody (from "neat" to 1:10,000) at different incubation times (1 hour and overnight) to see what works the best. We can also try different fixatives, frozen sections or whatever it will take to have the antibody work on your tissue. Some of the recent antibodies we've optimized include:

Actin (sma)
Alpha actinin
Alpha smooth muscle actin
App (Aß 1-42)
B-Galactosidase
BrdU
B-Tubulin
Caspase 3
CD106 (VCAM-1)
CD11b
CD19
Cd19
CD3
CD31
Cd34
CD4
CD41
Cd45
CD68
Cdh1 (E-Cadherin)
Cleaved Caspase-3
Collagen IV
COX-2
cytokeratin
Desmin
E Cahderin
EGF
Eosinophil peroxidase
F4/80
Factor VIII-related antigen
Fibronectin
GFAP
Her2/ErbB2
IgG (H&L)
Insulin
Keratin 1
Keratin 7
Keratin 8
Ki67
Laminin Mac-1 (CD11b)
Neuron-specific enolase (NSE)
NK
Ovalbumin
p53
pan keratin
PCNA
PECAM-1
S100
Shh
Ubiquitin
Vimentin
α-Tubulin

Antibody Validation - Using tissue array blocks, we can also validate your antibodies on a variety of tissues and species.